Amateur Radio Station G1EFU


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A brief summary for the newcomer who is interested in

becoming a licensed Amateur Radio Operator

The hobby of Amateur Radio, also known as "Ham radio" dates back to the early 1900’s when radio itself was in its infancy. The hobby is truly an international one, spanning most countries in the world. It is non-racist, non-political, and non-religious and among it’s ranks you will find men and women from all lifestyles from kings and national celebrities to the average working person.

Amateur Radio is a worldwide group of people with common yet widely varying interests, able to exchange ideas and knowledge about each other via two-way radio. Because of this, Amateur Radio has the ability to enhance international relations, as does no other hobby.

It is possible to speak or send digital data such as pictures to people all over the world, they may be camping, onboard a ship in the ocean, flying in a plane or an astronaut circling the earth. All this can be done without leaving your home.

As with most interests and hobbies you can start with the basics and add on at a later date as the situation allows.

Amateur Radio is indeed a wonderful hobby, age is no barrier, nor is a physical handicap, and lifetime friends are made worldwide every day.

If  you wish to learn more about Amateur Radio follow this lead to the RSGB WEB SITE and read on or contact via this website or any other Amateur Radio enthusiast.

Returning to Amateur Radio

In recent weeks, we’ve received a number of requests for help from people who are looking to get back into the hobby after a break, in some cases for as long as 30 years. To try to help, we’re putting together this page of notes on what’s changed. All suggestions and questions appreciated to help us build this up into a useful page.

What’s changed?

  • The new licensing structure, which launched in 2002:

    • “Foundation” (callsigns starting with ‘M3′ and ‘M6′) – Maximum 10 watts

    • “Intermediate” (callsigns starting with ‘2E0′ and ‘2E1′) – Maximum 50 watts (all bands)

    • “Full” (‘G’ callsigns, plus ‘M0′, ‘M1′ and ‘M5′) – Maximum 400 watts

  • The new ‘lifetime’ licence, which replaced the old BR68 in 2006

  • Morse code no longer required for access to HF

  • Various changes to the bandplans, including access to more of the 70cms and 40m bands

  • No more requirement to maintain a logbook

  • Use of CTCSS for repeater access – 1750Hz toneburst is being phased out, so whistling won’t work on many repeaters)

  • New data modes, such as JT65 and PSK31

  • New voice modes, such as D-Star (digital voice)

  • Internet technologies, such as Echolink, online logging tools, electronic QSL cards

  • New bands – 470kHz and 5MHz available to Full licence-holders only – NoV required.

  • New hardware – such as software defined radios (like the £10 Realtek dongle) and cheap £25 2m/70cm handhelds (such as the Baofeng UV-5R)

  • The QRA locator system has been phased out – Maidenhead Locators are now the preferred locator.

Anything I’ve missed? Let me know!

How to reinstate a lapsed amateur radio licence

We’re writing this short guide in response to a question from one of our members. Here in the UK, amateurs are required to validate their licence every five years, so that Ofcom knows you’re still active and the details on file are correct and current. If you hold a licence, see our guide to validating your UK amateur radio licence.

So what happens of you’ve let your licence lapse, or have taken a break from the hobby and are looking to return?

Reinstating your amateur radio licence

If your licence is no longer valid or has expired, you can’t use Ofcom’s online validation process to re-activate your licence and callsign. Instead, you have to complete an application form and post it to Ofcom to get your licence back.

There’s no longer a fee for an amateur radio licence in the UK (It used to be £15 a year) – However note that to reapply for a licence that has lapsed, there’s a one-off admin fee of £20 when applying with a paper form.

When you send off the application form to Ofcom, you will also need to enclose proof that you’re entitled to hold a licence and that you previously held the callsign in your own name. Proof can take the form of any of the following:

  • A copy of your old licence or validation document

  • A copy of your City & Guilds Institute certificate

  • If your callsign has appeared in one of the RSGB call books, then a copy/scan of your entry is also acceptable as proof.

  • Link to Licence Application form: Ofcom Amateur Radio Application Form

About the application form

At the time of writing (May 2014), the form you need to complete is an 11-page PDF multi-purpose form that’s used to get a new licence, apply for a club callsign, update a licence, or surrender a licence – therefore not all sections apply.

Sample pages of the Ofcom Amateur Radio licence

Sample pages of the Ofcom Amateur Radio licence

The form states that you should allow 14 days for processing once it’s been sent in.

Payment: A fee of £20 applies. This can be paid by enclosing a cheque with the form, or by adding card payment details in Section 12 of the form. Visa, Mastercard, Switch/UK Maestro and Visa Debit/Delta card payments are accepted. BACS transfer, postal orders, Vise Electron / Solo cards, and cash payments are not acceptable.

If you have any queries, or require additional help with reactivating your licence and callsign, you can contact Ofcom’s amateur radio licensing team on 020-7981 3131

From: Essex Ham

WHICH HF BAND TO USE...AND WHEN. DAY OR NIGHT? Information on this page may have been gleaned from the public domain

There seems to be some confusion over which HF amateur band to use and when to use it. Below, is a brief guide to the bands and when to expect results. 80 metres used to be great for inter-G working during the day, but that seems to have changed. Things are changing all the time so don't trash this guide just because you get nowhere on 80 metres one evening. One night, 80 will be brilliant and, the next, total crap. The bands are rather like women... Unpredictable, moody, prone to inexplicable swings... All due respect to women, of course! Auroral activity (weird stuff happening around the north pole) can affect the bands, as can your neighbour’s clapped out vacuum cleaner. And as for switched mode bloody power supplies!


Why is 160 metres better for inter-G working than 20 metres? Do bear in mind that this is a guide only.

160 Metres. Top Band. 1.8-2.0 MHz.  This is almost on top of the medium wave broadcast band. Old 1960s pirates familiar with medium wave and aerials for this band will have no problems with top band. 160 metres is great for local contacts during the day, using ground wave, with long distances obtainable at night when the band opens. During the summer months, the night time distances may be several hundred miles, or even thousands of miles. During the winter months, communications over distances of several thousand miles can be achieved regularly.

80 Metres. 3.5-3.8 MHz. 80 metres is very similar to 160 meters but with greater distances obtainable during the night. 80 is a fairly reliable band, but there are times when it just dies. It's used for regular nets, particularly inter-G working. The whole of Europe may be worked during the night if conditions are good. And, with a decent aerial, you can squirt a signal over the pond the the US.

40 Metres. 7.0-7.1 MHz.  This is usually open to somewhere or other. During the summer months, daytime distances between 300 and 500 miles can be achieved. A great band for inter-G working during the day. At night, distances of 1000 miles or more are not uncommon. With the right aerial, you can work the world on this band at night. Winter days with 500 miles or more are usual and night time brings in the intercontinental stuff. Not as affected by the sunspot cycle as 20 and 10 metres. There are times when you'll hear people say the the skip is long. When this is the case, inter-G working is pretty much nonexistent. However, during long skip conditions, the band should be open to Germany and other european countries.

30 Metres. 10.100-10.150 MHz.  A lot like 40 metres, but this band can only be used on CW and RTTY. (This doesn't seem to apply to the French!) The band has a longer range than 40 metres, with daytime distances of 1000 miles or more achievable.

20 Metres. 14.000-14.350 MHz. This is a great band for DXing, even with a crappy aerial. The whole of Europe can be worked, usually twenty-fours hours a day. It's a dreadful band for inter-G working, unless you want to chat to the bloke down the road. Of course, if you do that, you'll probably be heard thousands of miles away. As we get higher in frequency, the aerials become smaller, making this an ideal band for the guys with small gardens. Check out my Coffee Break Vertical For 20 Metres.

17 Metres. 18.068-18.168 MHz. Propagation on this band is virtually the same as 20 metres.

15 Metres. 21.000-21.450 MHz. Very much like 20 metres but unpredictable. More affected by the sunspot cycle. When this band is open, working the US is fairly easy.

12 Metres. 24.890-24.990 MHz. Very much influenced by the sunspot cycle. This band can be used for local communications, rather like citizens band. When the band is open during the day, the world can be worked with a pretty basic aerial. The band often remains open late into the night, which can be interesting.

10 Metres. 28.000-29.7000 MHz.  This band is affected most by the sunspot cycle. As with CB, this band is pretty good for local work. But, when it's open, it's really great. From the UK, the American FM repeaters can be worked with no trouble at all.


HF Band Plan


160 Meters (1.8-2.0 Mhz)

1.800 - 1.810 Digital Modes
1.810 CW QRP Calling Frequency
1.800 - 2.000 CW
1.843-2.000 SSB, SSTV and other wide band modes
1.830-1.840 CW, data and other narrowband modes, intercontinental QSO's only
1.840-1.850 CW; SSB, SSTV and other wide band modes, intercontinental QSO's
1.910 SSB QRP
1.995 - 2.000 Experimental
1.999 - 2.000 Beacons

80 Meters (3.5 - 4.0 Mhz)

3.560 QRP CW calling frequency
3.590 RTTY DX
3.580-3.620 RTTY / Data
3.620-3.635 Packet
3.710 QRP Novice/Technician CW calling freq.
3.730 SSTV
3.733 Digital SSTV
3.790-3.800 DX Window
3.885 AM calling frequency

40 Meters (7.0-7.3 MHz)

7.040 RTTY DX QRP CW calling frequency
7.058 40m Digital SSTV Europe
7.080-7.100 RTTY / Data
7.100-7.105 Packet
7.110 QRP Novice/Technician CW calling freq.
7.171 SSTV
7.285 QRP SSB calling frequency
7.290 AM calling frequency

30 Meters (10.1-10.15 MHz)

10.106 QRP CW calling frequency
10.130-10.140 RTTY / Data
10.140-10.150 Packet

20 Meters (14.0-14.35 MHz)

14.060 QRP CW calling frequency
14.070-14.095 RTTY / Data
14.095-14.0995 Packet
14.100 NCDXF/IARU Beacons
14.1005-14.112 Packet
14.230 SSTV Analogue
14.233 Digital SSTV
14.285 QRP SSB calling frequency
14.286 AM calling frequency

17 Meters (18.068-18.168 MHz):

18.100-18.105 RTTY/Data
18.105-18.110 Packet

15 Meters (21.0-21.45 MHz)

21.060 QRP CW calling frequency
21.070-21.100 RTTY / DATA
21.100-21.110 Packet
21.337 Digital SSTV
21.340 SSTV Analogue
21.385 QRP SSB calling frequency

12 Meters (24.89-24.99 MHz)

24.920-24.925 RTTY / Data
24.925-24.930 Packet

10 Meters (28-29.7 MHz)

28.000-28.070 CW
28.060 QRP CW calling frequency
28.070-28.150 RTTY / Data
28.150-28.190 CW
28.190-28.300 Beacons
28.300-29.300 Phone
28.385 QRP SSB calling frequency
28.680 SSTV
29.000-29.200 AM
29.300-29.510 Satellite Downlinks
29.520-29.590 Repeater Inputs
29.600 FM Simplex
29.610-29.700 Repeater Outputs

Need a User Manual?

Here is a great link if you require user manual 


VHF-UHF Band Plans.





Licence Notes: Amateur Service: 50.0-51.0MHz Primary, 51.0-52.0MHz Secondary. Available on the basis of non-interference to other services (inside or outside the UK)

Power Limit: 50.0-51.0MHz 26dBW PEP, 51.0-52.0MHz 20dBW PEP.

Permitted modes: Morse, telephony, RTTY, data, fax, SSTV.

Note 1: Only to be used for QSO's between stations in different continents.

Note 2: No QSO's on this frequency. Always QSY when working intercontinental DX.

Note 3: 20kHZ channel spacing. Channel centre of frequencies start at 51.430MHz.

Note 4: Used by GB2RS news and for slow Morse transmissions. 

  Max Bandwidth -6dB


UK Usage




50.000-50.080        Beacons

50.090                     Telegraphy centre



All narrow band modes (telegraphy, SSB, MGM etc) 50.100-50.130         Intercontinental Telegraphy (1)

50.110                      DX Calling (2)

50.150                      SSB centre of activity

50.185                      Crossband centre of activity

50.200                      MS centre of activity

50.250                      PSK31 centre of activity

50.255                      JT44

50.260-50.280          FSK441

50.270                      FSK441 calling frequency



All modes

50.510                      SSTV (AFSK)

50.550                      FAX working frequency

50.600                      RTTY (FSK)

50.620-50.750          Digital communications

50.710-50.910          FM repeater outputs

51.210                       Emergency comms priority

51.210-51.410          FM repeater input channels (20kHz spacing)

51.430-51.590          FM (3)

51.510                       FM calling frequency

51.530                       Note 4

51.940-52.000          Emergency comms priority




Licence Notes: Amateur Service: Secondary. Available on the basis of non interference to other services (inside or outside the UK). Power limit: 22dBW PEP. Permitted modes: Morse, telephony, RTTY, data, fax, SSTV.


UK Usage



70.030                                          Personal beacons

SSB and CW only

70.085                                          PSK31 centre of activity

70.185                                          Cross-band activity centre

70.200                                          SSB/CW calling


All modes

70.260                                          AM/FM calling

Channelised operation using 12.5kHZ channels

70.3000                                        RTTY/fax calling/working

70.3125                                        Digital modes

70.3250                                        Digital modes

70.3375                                        Digital modes

70.3500                                        Emergency comms priority

70.3625                                        Digital modes

70.3750                                        Emergency comms priority

70.3875                                        Internet voice gateway

70.4000                                        Emergency comms priority             

70.4125                                        Internet voice gateway

70.4250                                        FM simplex-used by GB2RS

70.4375                                        Digital modes

70.4500                                        FM calling

70.4625                                        Digital modes

70.4875                                        Digital modes



Licence Notes: Amateur Service: Primary. Amateur Satellite Service: Primary.

Power Limit: 26dbw 

Permitted modes: Morse, telephony, RTTY, data, fax, SSTV, Unattended beacons: only for DF contests.

Note 1: Meteor scatter operation can take place up to 26kHz higher that the reference frequency.

Note 2: 12.5kHz channels numbered RV48-RV63. RV48 input = 145.000MHz, output = 145.600MHz.

Note 3: 12.5kHz simplex channels numbered V16-V46. V16 = 145.200MHz

Max Bandwidth -6dB


UK Usage




                             EME exclusive


Telegraphy     144.050                Telegraphy calling

144.100                Random MS telegraphy (1)



Telegraphy MGM

144.138                PSK31 centre of activity

144.140-144.150 FAI & EME activity CW



Telegraphy MGM, SSB

144.150-144.160 FAI & EME activity SSB


Telegraphy, SSB

144.175               Microwave talkback

144.195-144.205 Random MS SSB

144.250               GB2RS and slow morse

144.260               Emergency comms priority

144.300               SSB calling



 Telegraphy, SSB, MGM

144.370               FSK441 random calling


Telegraphy MGM

                            Beacons only

Guard Band



All mode

144.500               SSTV calling

144.525               ATV SSB talkback

144.600               RTTY calling

144.600+             RTTY working (FSK)

144.630-144.660 Linear transponder out

144.660-144.690 Linear transponder in

144.700                FAX calling

144.750                ATV talkback

144.775-144.794 emergency comms priority




                             Packet radio

144.800                APRS

144.800-144.990 Digital modes (inc unattended)




RV48-RV63            Repeater input exclusive (2)



                             Space communication (eg ISS)



V16-V46               FM simplex (3)

145.2125             Internet voice gateway

145.225               Emergency comms priority

145.2375             Internet voice gateway

145.250               Used for slow morse

145.300               RTTY local

145.500               (Mobile) calling

145.525               Used for GB2RS

145.550               Used for Rally/exhibition talk-in




RV48-RV63          Repeater output (3)



                           Space Communications (EG ISS) 


All mode

                           Satellite exclusive



Licence Notes: Amateur Service: Secondary Satellite Service: 435-438MHz Secondary.

Exclusion: 431-432MHz not available within 100km radius of Charing Cross London.

Power limit: 430-432MHz 16dBW ERP PEP, 432-440MHz 26dBW

Permitted modes: Morse, telephony, RTTY, data, fax, SSTV, FSTV



UK Usage


All modes

430.000-430.810                      Digital comms (Notes 6,7)

430.0125                                   Internet voice linking (Note 8)

430.0250                                   Internet voice linking (Note 8)

430.0375                                   Internet voice linking (Note 8)

430.0500                                   Internet voice linking (Note 8)

430.0625                                   Internet voice linking (Note 8)

430.0750                                   Internet voice linking (Note 8)

430.600-430.800                      (note 5) 


Repeater outputs (Note 1)

430.810-430.990                      7.6MHz split repeaters


All modes (Note 1)

430.990-431.900                      Digital comms (Note 6)


CW, Datamodes

432.000-432.025                      Moonbounce

432.050                                    CW centre of activity

432.088                                    PSK31 centre of activity


SSB, CW, Datamodes

432.200                                    SSB centre of activity

432.350                                    Microwave talkback calling freq. (Europe)

432.370                                    FSK441 calling freq. 


All modes non- channelised

432.500-432.600                      IARU Region 1 linear transponder outputs

432.600-432.800                      IARU Region 1 linear transponder inputs

432.500                                    SSTV activity centre

432.600                                    RTTY (fsk) activity centre

432.625                                    Digital communications

432.650                                    Digital communications

432.675                                    Digital communications

432.700                                    Fax activity centre



432.800-432.990                      Beacons (Note 9)


FM repeater outputs UK only      (Note 1)

RU240(RBO)-RU270(RB15)       FM repeater outputs (25kHz channels)


FM simplex channels

433.400 U272(SU16)

433.425 U274(SU17)

433.450 U276(SU18)

433.475 U278(SU19)

433.500 U280(SU20)                FM calling channel

433.525 U282(SU21)

433.550 U284(SU22)                Used for rally/exhibition talk-in

433.575 U286(SU23)

433.600 U288(SU24)                RTTY AFSK

433.625                                     Digital communications

433.650                                     Digital communications

433.675                                     Digital communications

433.700                                     (Notes 2, 3 and 5)

433.725                                     (Notes 2 and 5)

433.750                                     (Notes 2 and 5)

433.775                                     (Notes 2 and 5)

433.800-434.250                      Digital communications


FM repeater inputs UK only (Note 1) and FSTV (note 4)

RU240 (RB0) to RU270 (RB15)  FM repeater outputs (25kHz channels)


Satellites and FSTV (Note 4)




438.025-438.175                     Note 5

438.200-438.425                     Note 1


Repeater inputs + FSTV

438.425-438.575                     7.6MHz split repeaters



438.200-439.425                     Note 1

439.600-439.750                     Digital comms (Note 6)


Packet radio

439.750-440.000                     Digital comms (Note 6)

430MHz (70cm) licence Notes:

Note 1

In Switzerland, Germany and Austria, repeater inputs are... 430.600-431.825MHz with 25kHz spacing, and outputs are 438.200-439.425MHz. In France and the Netherlands repeater outputs are... 430.025-430.375MHz with 25kHz spacing and inputs at 431.625-431.975MHz in other European countries repeater inputs are 433.000-433.375MHz with 25kHz spacing and outputs at 434.600-434.975MHz, ie the reverse of the UK allocation.

Note 2

Emergency communications priority.

Note 3

IARU Region 1 fax/AFSK.

Note 4

Fastscan TV carrier frequencies shall be chosen so as to avoid interference to other users, in particular the satellite services and repeater inputs. IARU region 1 recommends that video carriers should be in the range 434.000-434.500MHz or 438.500-440.000MHz.

Note 5

IARU Region 1 packet radio.

Note 6

The DCC will recommend usage of this sub band at a later date.

Note 7

Users must accept interference from F/PA repeater output channels in 430.025 to 430.375MHz. Users with sites which allow propagation to other countries (notably F and PA) must survey the proposed frequency before use to ensure that they will not cause interference to users of repeaters in those countries. 

Note 8

Internet voice linking channels: maximum deviation ±2.4kHz, maximum effected radiated power 10dBW.

Note 9

The beacon band is scheduled to change to a new allocation of 432.400-432.500MHz from 1 Jan. 2004.    

Amateur Radio Information

For good Amateur Radio information visit my friend Paul's excellent websites




Commonly used Ham Radio emission characteristics

Transmission mode

Emission mode coding examples

Morse A1A
Speech A3E J3E F3E G3E
Data (packet) A2D
Facsimile A2C J2C F2C G2F

RST Codes

The RST code, in its original form, is intended for CW operation. On SSB, the final digit (tone) is normally omitted.

Number R - Readability S - Strength T - Tone
RST Code Commonly Used by Radio Amateurs
1 Unreadable Faint signal, barely perceptible Sixty cycle a.c or less, very rough and broad
2 Barely readable, occasional words distinguishable Very Weak Very rough a.c., very harsh and broad
3 Readable with considerable difficulty Weak Rough a.c. tone, rectified but not filtered
4 Readable with practically no difficulty Fair Rough note, some trace of filteringfrequency
5 Perfectly readable Fairly Good Filtered rectified a.c. but strongly ripple-modulated
6 not used Good Filtered tone, definite trace of ripple modulation
7 not used Moderately Strong Near pure tone, trace of ripple modulation
8 not used Strong Near perfect tone, slight trace of modulation
9 not used Very strong signals Perfect tone, no trace of ripple or modulation of any kind  

In CW operation, individual digits may be abbreviated by substituting as follows: 1 = A, 2 = U, 3 = V, 4 = 4, 5 = E, 6 = 6, 7 = B, 8 = D, 9 = N, 0 = T (for instance, RST 599 could be sent as 5NN - a shorter message in CW). These are referred to as "cut numbers" and are obtained by replacing all of the dashes in a CW digit with a single dash. Cut numbers are not suitable for transmitting data which already contains mixed alphanumerics, such as callsigns

In CW operation, individual digits may be abbreviated by substituting as follows: 1 = A, 2 = U, 3 = V, 4 = 4, 5 = E, 6 = 6, 7 = B, 8 = D, 9 = N, 0 = T (for instance, RST 599 could be sent as 5NN - a shorter message in CW). These are referred to as "cut numbers" and are obtained by replacing all of the dashes in a CW digit with a single dash. Cut numbers are not suitable for transmitting data which already contains mixed alphanumerics, such as callsigns


Morse Code


Morse code is a way to encode text through the generation of a carrier wave (CW). It is used to communicate over long distances or with low power (QRP).

You do not need to learn morse code to obtain a radio license or operate an amateur radio station anymore.

The code is composed of 5 elements:

  1. short mark, dot or 'dit' (·) — one unit long
  2. longer mark, dash or 'dah' (–) — three units long
  3. intra-character gap (between the dots and dashes within a character) — one unit long
  4. short gap (between letters) — three units long
  5. medium gap (between words) — seven units long
Character Code Character Code Character Code Character Code Character Code Character Code
A · — J · — — — S · · · 1 · — — — — . · — · — · — : — — — · · ·
B — · · · K — · — T 2 · · — — — , — — · · — — ; — · — · — ·
C — · — · L · — · · U · · — 3 · · · — — ? · · — — · · = — · · · —
D — · · M — — V · · · — 4 · · · · — '' · — — — — · + · — · — ·
E · N — · W · — — 5 · · · · · ! — · — · — — - — · · · · —
F · · — · O — — — X — · · — 6 — · · · · / — · · — · _ · · — — · —
G — — · P · — — · Y — · — — 7 — — · · · ( — · — — · " · — · · — ·
H · · · · Q — — · — Z — — · · 8 — — — · · ) — · — — · — $ · · · — · · —
I · · R · — · 0 — — — — — 9 — — — — · & · — · · · @ · — — · — ·

CB "10" Codes

"10" CodesTranslation
10-0Take Care/Caution
10-1Poor Reception
10-2Good Transmission
10-3Stop Transmittion
10-4OK, Message Received
10-5Repeat Message
10-6Busy - Stand By
10-7Out of service
10-8In service, Open to Calls
10-9Repeat Message
10-10Transmission Completed, Waiting
10-11You're Talking Too Fast
10-12Visitors Present
10-13Advise Road/Weather Conditions
10-16Collect at...
10-17Urgent Business
10-18Anything For Me?
10-19Return To...
10-20My Location Is...
10-21Phone Me
10-22Come Personally
10-23Stand By
10-24Assignment Completed
10-25Get In Touch With...
10-26Disregard Message
10-27Moving to channel...
10-28Identify Yourself
10-29Time up for Contact
10-30Illegal Use Of Radio
10-31Crime In Progress
10-32Radio Check
10-34Trouble Here, Help!
10-35Confidential Info
10-36Correct Time Is...
10-37Breakdown at...
10-38Ambulance needed
10-39Your Message Delivered
10-41Change To Channel...
10-42Road accident
10-43Traffic Jam at...
10-44Message for you
10-45Anyone Within Range?
10-46Assist Motorist
10-50Break Channel...
10-53Accident - Road Blocked
10-60Next Message Number?
10-62Can't copy - Use Phone
10-63Network Directed To...
10-64Network Clear
10-65Next Assignment/Message?
10-67All Units Comply With...
10-70Fire At...
10-71Proceed with Message
10-73Speed Trap at...
10-75You Are Causing Interference
10-77Negative Contact
10-81Reserve hotel room for...
10-82Reserve Hotel Room For...
10-84My Telephone Number Is...
10-85My Address Is...
10-88Advise Telephone Number Of...
10-89Radio Repairs Needed
10-90I Have TVI
10-91Talk Closer To The Mike
10-92Adjust Your Transmitter
10-93Check My Frequency
10-94Give Me A Long Count
10-95Transmit Dead Carrier For 5 Seconds
10-96Subject Is Mental
10-97Check (Test) Signal
10-99Mission Completed, Secure
10-100Going For A Pee
10-200Police Needed at...





























































  10 -100 also Check out QAU below         

Q Codes



These codes were originally developed to shorten transmission times when using CW, but are frequently used in voice transmissions. (eg. I am going to go QRT, thanks for the QSO.)

The QRA...QUZ code range includes phrases applicable to all services and is allocated to the International Telecommunications Union. NATO's  COMMUNICATIONS INSTRUCTIONS - OPERATING SIGNALS, March 1997, list 2 contains a full list of 'Q' codes. Other 'Q' code ranges are allocated specifically to aviation or maritime services; many of those codes have fallen into disuse as voice displaces CW in commercial operation.

The Q-code was originally instituted at the Radiotelegraph Convention held in London, 1912 and was intended for marine radiotelegraph use. The codes were based on an earlier list published by the British postmaster general's office in 1908.

Code Meaning Sample use
Q Codes Commonly Used by Radio Amateurs
QRG Exact frequency HE TX ON QRG 14205 kHz
QRI Tone (T in the RST code) UR QRI IS 9
QRK Intelligibility (R in the RST code) UR QRK IS 5
QRL This frequency is busy. Used almost exclusively with morse code, usually as a question (QRL? - is this frequency busy?) before transmitting on a new frequency
QRM Man-made interference ANOTHER QSO UP 2 kHz CAUSING LOT OF QRM
QRN Natural interference, e.g. static crashes BAND NOISY TODAY LOT OF QRN
QRP Decrease power QRP TO 5 W (As a mode of operation, a QRP station is five watts or less, a QRPp station one watt or less)
QRQ Send more quickly TIME SHORT PSE QRQ
QRR Temporarily unavailable/away, please wait WILL BE QRR 30 MIN = THAT STN IS QRR NW
QRRR Land distress A non-standard call proposed by ARRL for land-based or railroad emergency traffic in situations where response from ships at sea (which listened for SOS) was neither needed nor desired.[2][3] Now deprecated.
QRS Send more slowly PSE QRS NEW TO CW (QRS operation - a slower dot rate - is useful during weak-signal conditions; a QRSS mode uses an extremely low code rate on a channel less than 1Hz wide to allow reception under extreme QRP conditions)
QRU Have you anything for me? QRU? ABOUT TO QRT
QRX Will call you again QRX @ 1500H
QRZ You are being called by ________. QRZ? UR VY WEAK (Only someone who has previously called should reply)
QSA Signal strength UR QSA IS 5
QSB Fading of signal THERE IS QSB ON UR SIG
QSD Your keying is defective QSD CK YR TX
QSL I Acknowledge receipt QSL UR LAST TX = PSE QSL VIA BURO (i.e. please send me a card confirming this contact).
QSN I heard you QSN YESTERDAY ON 7005 kHz
QSO A conversation TNX QSO 73
QST General call to all stations QST: QRG ALLOCS HV CHGD
QSX I am listening on ... frequency QSX 14200 TO 14210 kHz
QSY Shift to transmit on ... LETS QSY UP 5 kHz
QTA Disregard last message QTA, DID NOT MEAN THAT
QTR Exact time QTR IS 2000 Z



 Question ?Answer or Advice
QAB May I have clearance (for ...) from ... (place) to ... (place) at flight level/altitude ... ? You are cleared (or ... is cleared) by ... from ... (place) to ... (place) at flight level/altitude ...
QAF Will you advise me when you are (were) at (over) ... (place)? I am (was) at (over) ... (place) (at ... hours) at flight level/altitude ...
QAG  Arrange your flight in order to arrive over ... (place) at ... hours.
I am arranging my flight in order to arrive over ... (place) at ... hours.
QAH What is your height above ... (datum)? I am at .... flight level/altitude ...
Arrange your flight so as to reach flight level/altitude ... at ... (hours or place).
QAI What is the essential traffic respecting my aircraft? The essential traffic respecting your aircraft is ...
QAK Is there any risk of collision? There is risk of collision.
QAL Are you going to land at ... (place)?
Has aircraft ... landed at ... (place)?
I am going to land at ... (place).
(You may) land at ... (place).
Aircraft ... landed at ... (place).
QAM What is the latest available meteorological observation for ... (place)? Meteorological observation made at ... (place) at ... hours was as follows ...
Note.- The information may be given in Q Code form or the METAR form.
QAN What is the surface wind direction and speed at ... (place)? The surface wind direction and speed at ... (place) at ... hours is ... (direction) ... (speed).
QAO What is the wind direction in degrees TRUE and speed at ... (position or zone/s) at each of the ... (figures) ... (units) levels above ... (datum)? The wind direction and speed at (position or zone/s) at flight level/altitude ... is:
... (vertical distance) ... degrees TRUE ... (speed).
QAP Shall I listen for you (or for ...) on ... kHz (... MHz)? Listen for me (or for ...) on ... kHz (... MHz).
QAQ Am I near a prohibited, restricted or danger area?
Am I near area ... (identification of area)?
You are ...
1) near
2) flying within area ... (identification of area).
QAR May I stop listening on the watch frequency for ... minutes? You may stop listening on the watch frequency for ... minutes.
QAU Where may I jettison fuel?    (Where can I go for a pee)
I am about to jettison fuel.  (I am going for a pee)
QAW  I am about to carry out overshoot procedure.
QAY Will you advise me when you pass (passed) ... (place) bearing 090 (270) degrees relative to your heading? I passed ... (place) bearing ... degrees relative to my heading at ... hours.
QAZ Are you experiencing communication difficulties through flying in a storm? I am experiencing communication difficulties through flying in a storm.
QBA What is the horizontal visibility at ... (place)? The horizontal visibility at ... (place) at ... hours is ... (distance figures and units).
QBB What is the amount, type and height above official aerodrome elevation of the base of the cloud [at ... (place)]? The amount, type and height above official aerodrome elevation of the base of the cloud at ... (place) at ... hours is:
... eights (... type) at ... (figures and units) height above official aerodrome elevation.
QBC Report meteorological conditions as observed from your aircraft [at ... (position or zone)] [(at ... hours)]. The meteorological conditions as observed from my aircraft at ... (position or zone) at ... hours at ... (figures and units) height above ... (datum) are ...
Note.-The answer is required in the format of an AIREP message.
QBD How much fuel have you remaining (expressed as hours and/or minutes of consumption)? My fuel endurance is ... (hours and/or minutes).
QBE  I am about to wind in my aerial.
QBF Are you flying in cloud? I am flying in cloud at ... flight level/altitude ... [and I am ascending (descending) to flight level/altitude ...].
QBG Are you flying above cloud? I am flying above cloud and at flight level/altitude ...
Maintain a vertical distance of ... (figures and units) above clouds, smoke, haze or fog levels.
QBH Are you flying below cloud? I am flying below cloud and at flight level/altitude ...
Maintain a vertical distance of ... (figures and units) below cloud.
QBI Is flight under IFR compulsory at ... (place) [or from ... to ... (place)]? Flight under IFR is compulsory at ... (place) [or from ... to ... (place)].
QBJ What is the amount, type and height above ... (datum) of the top of the cloud [at ... (position or zone)]? At ... hours at ... (position or zone) the top of the cloud is:
amount ... eights (... type) at ... (figures and units) height above ... (datum).
QBK Are you flying with no cloud in your vicinity? I am flying with no cloud in my vicinity and at flight level/altitude ...
QBM Has ... sent any messages for me? Here is the message sent by ... at ... hours.
QBN Are you flying between two layers of cloud? I am flying between two layers of cloud and at flight level/altitude ...
QBO What is the nearest aerodrome at which flight under VFR is permissible and which would be suitable for my landing? Flying under VFR is permissible at ... (place) which would be suitable for your landing.
QBP Are you flying in and out of cloud? I am flying in and out of cloud and at flight level/altitude ...
QBS  Ascend (or descend) to ... (figures and units) height above ... (datum) before encountering instrument meteorological conditions or if visibility falls below ... (distance figures and units) and advise.
QBT What is the runway visual range at ... (place)? The runway visual range at ... (place) at ... hours is ... (distance figures and units).
QBV Have you reached flight level/altitude ... [or ... (area or place)]? I have reached ... flight level/altitude ... [or ... (area or place)].
Report reaching flight level/altitude ... [or ... (area or place)].
QBX Have you left ... flight level/altitude ... [or ... (area or place)]? I have left ... flight level/altitude ... [or ... (area or place)].
Report leaving flight level/altitude ... [or ... (area or place)].
QBZ Report your flying conditions in relation to clouds. The reply to QBZ ? is given by the appropriate answer form of signals QBF, QBG, QBH, QBK, QBN and QBP.
QCA May I change my flight level/altitude from ... to ... ? You may change your flight level/altitude from ... to ...
I am changing my flight level/altitude from ... to ...
QCB  Delay is being caused by ...
1) your transmitting out of turn.
2) your slowness in answering.
3) lack of your reply to my ...
QCE When may I expect approach clearance? Expect approach clearance at ... hours.
No delay expected.
QCF  Delay indefinite. Expect approach clearance not later than ... hours.
QCH May I taxi to ... (place)? Cleared to taxi to ... (place).
QCI  Make a 360-degree turn immediately (turning to the ...).
I am making a 360-degree turn immediately (turning to the ...).
QCS  My reception on ... frequency has broken down.
QCX What is your full call sign? My full call sign is ...
Use your full call sign until further notice.
QCY  I am working on a trailing aerial.
Work on a trailing aerial.
QDB Have you sent message ... to ... ? I have sent message ... to ...
QDF What is your D-Value at ... (position)?
What is the D-Value at ... (place or position) (at ... hours) for the ... millibar level?
My D-Value at ... (position) at ... (figures and units) height above the 1013.2 millibars datum is ... (D-Value figures and units) ... (specify plus or minus).
The D-Value at ... (place or position) at ... hours for the ... millibar level is (D-Value figures and units) ... (specify plus or minus).
Note.- When the true altitude (radio altitude) is greater than the pressure altitude PS (Plus) is used and when is is less MS (Minus) is used.
QDL Do you intend to ask me for a series of bearings? I intend to ask you for a series of bearings.
QDM Will you indicate the MAGNETIC heading for me to steer towards you (or ...) with no wind? The MAGNETIC heading for you to steer to reach me (or ...) with no wind was ... degrees (at ... hours).
QDP Will you accept control (or responsibility) of (for) ... now (or at ... hours)? I will accept control (or responsibility) of (for) ... now (or at ... hours).
QDR What is my MAGNETIC bearing from you (or from ...)? Your MAGNETIC bearing from me (or from ...) was ... degrees (at ... hours).
QDT Are you flying in visual meteorological condition? I am flying in visual meteorological condition.
You are cleared subject to maintaining own separation and visual meteorological conditions.
QDU  Cancelling my IFR flight.
IFR flight cancelled at ... (time).
QDV Are you flying in a flight visibility of less than ... (figures and units)? I am flying in a flight visibility of less than ... (figures and units) at flight level/altitude ...
QEA May I cross the runway ahead of me? You may cross the runway ahead of you.
QEB May I turn at the intersection? Taxi as follows at the intersection ...
(straight ahead DRT
turn left LEFT
turn right RITE).
QEC May I make a 180-degree turn and return down the runway? You may make a 180-degree turn and return down the runway.
QED Shall I follow the pilot vehicle? Follow the pilot vehicle.
QEF Have I reached my parking area?
Have you reached your parking area?
You have reached your parking area.
I have reached my parking area.
QEG May I leave the parking area?
Have you left the parking area?
You may leave the parking area.
I have left the parking area.
QEH May I move to the holding position for runway number ... ?
Have you moved to the holding position for runway number ... ?
Cleared to the holding position for runway number ...
I have moved to the holding position for runway number ...
QEJ May I assume position for take-off?
Have you assumed position for take-off?
Cleared to hold at take-off position for runway number ...
I am assuming take-off position for runway number ... and am holding.
QEK Are you ready for immediate take-off? I am ready for immediate take-off.
QEL May I take-off (and make a ... hand turn after take-off)? You are cleared to take-off (turn as follows after take-off ...).
QEM What is the condition of the landing surface at ... (place)? The condition of the landing surface at ... (place) is ...
Note.- The information is given by sending appropriate NOTAM Code groups.
QEN Shall I hold my position? Hold your position
QEO Shall I clear the runway (or landing area)?
Have you cleared the runway (or landing area)?
Clear the runway (or landing area).
I have cleared the runway (or landing area).
QES Is a right-hand circuit in force at ... (place)? A right-hand circuit is in force at ... (place).
QFA What is the meteorological forecast for ... (flight, route, section of route or zone) for the period ... hours until ... hours? The meteorological forecast for ... (flight, route, section of route or zone) for the period ... hours until ... hours is ...
QFB  The ...
1) approach
2) runway
3) approach and runway
lights are out of order.
QFC What is the amount, the type and the height above ... (datum) of the base of the cloud at ... (place, position or zone)? At ... (place, position or zone) the base of the cloud is ... eighths ... type at ... (figures and units) height above ... (datum).
QFD 1) Is the ... visual beacon [at ... (place)] in operation?
2) Will you switch on the ... visual beacon [at ... (place)]?
3) Will you extinguish the aerodrome visual beacon [at ... (place)] until I have landed?
1) The ... visual beacon [at ... (place)] is in operation
2) I will extinguish the aerodrome visual beacon [at ... (place)] until your landing is completed.
QFE What should I set on the subscale of my altimeter so that the instrument would indicate its height above the reference elevation being used? If you set the subscale of your altimeter to read ... millibars, the instrument would indicate its height above aerodrome elevation (above threshold, runway number ...).
QFF [At ... (place)] what is the present atmospheric pressure converted to mean sea level in accordance with meteorological practice? At ... (place) the atmospheric pressure converted to mean sea level in accordance with meteorological practice is (or was determined at ... hours to be) ... millibars.
QFG Am I overhead? You are overhead.
QFH May I descend below the clouds? You may descend below the clouds.
QFI Are the aerodrome lights lit? The aerodrome lights are lit.
Please light the aerodrome lights.
QFL Will you send up pyrotechnical lights? I will send up pyrotechnical lights.
QFM What flight level/altitude ...
1) should I maintain?
2) are you maintaining?
3) do you intend cruising at?
1) Maintain (or fly at) flight level/altitude ...
2) I am maintaining flight level/altitude ...
3) I intend cruising at flight level/altitude ...
QFO May I land immediately? You may land immediately.
QFP Will you give me the latest information concerning ... facility [at ... (place)]? The latest information concerning ... facility [at ... (place)] is as follows ...
Note.- The information is given by sending appropriate NOTAM Code groups.
QFQ Are the approach and runway lights lit? The approach and runway lights are lit.
Please light the approach and runway lights.
QFR Does my landing gear appear damaged? Your landing gear appears damaged.
QFS Is the radio facility at ... (place) in operation? The radio facility at ... (place) is in operation (or will be in operation in ... hours).
Please have the ... radio facility at ... (place) put in operation.
QFT Between what heights above ... (datum) has ice formation been observed [at ... (position or zone)]? Ice formation has been observed at ... (position or zone) in the type of ... and with an accretion rate of ... between ... (figures and units) and ... (figures and units) heights above ... (datum).
QFU What is the magnetic direction (or number) of the runway to be used? The magnetic direction (or number) of the runway to be used is ...
Note.- The runway number is indicated by a two-figure group and the magnetic direction by a three-figure group.
QFV Are the floodlights switched on? The floodlights are switched on.
Please switch on the floodlights.
QFW What is the length of the runway in use in ... (units)? The length of runway ... now in use is ... (figures and units).
QFX  I am working (or am going to work) on a fixed aerial.
Work on a fixed aerial.
QFY Please report the present meteorological landing conditions [at ... (place)].The present meteorological landing conditions at ... (place) are ...
Note.- When given in Q Code the information is sent in the following sequence: QAN, QBA, QNY, QBB, QNH and/or QFE and, if necessary, QMU, QNT, QBJ.
QFZ What is the aerodrome meteorological forecast for ... (place) for the period ... hours until ... hours? The aerodrome meteorological forecast for ... (place) for the period ... hours until ... hours is ...
Note.- When given in Q Code the following sequence of Q signal answer (or advice) forms is to be used: QAN, QBA, QNY, QBB and, if necessary, QMU, QNT and QBJ.
QGC  There are obstructions to the ... of ... runway ...
QGD Are there on my track any obstructions whose elevation equals or exceeds my altitude? There are obstructions on your track ... (figures and units) height above ... (datum).
QGE What is my distance to your station (or to ...)? Your distance to my station (or to ...) is ... (distance figures and units).
QGH May I land using ... (procedure or facility)? You may land using ... (procedure or facility).
QGK What track should I make good?
What track are you making good?
Make good a track from ... (place) on ... degrees ... (true or magnetic).
I am making good a track from ... (place) on ... degrees ... (true or magnetic).
QGL May I enter the ... (control area or zone) at ... (place)? You may enter the ... (control area or zone) at ... (place).
QGM  Leave the ... (control area or zone).
QGN May I be cleared to land [at ... (place)]? You are cleared to land [at ... (place)].
QGO  Landing is prohibited at ... (place).
QGP What is my number for landing? You are number ... to land.
QGQ May I hold at ... (place)? Hold at ... (place) at flight level/altitude ... (datum) and await further clearance.
QGT  Fly for ... minutes on a heading what will enable you to maintain a track reciprocal to your present one.
QGU  Fly for ... minutes on a magnetic heading of ... degrees.
QGV Do you see me?
Can you see the aerodrome?
Can you see ... (aircraft)?
I see you at ... (cardinal or quadrantal point of direction).
I can see the aerodrome.
I can see ... (aircraft).
QGW Does my landing gear appear to be down and in place? Your landing gear appears to be down and in place.
QGZ  Hold on ... direction of ... facility.
QHE Will you inform me when you are on ... leg of approach? I am on ...
1) cross-wind leg
2) down-wind leg
3) base leg
4) final leg
... of approach.
QHG May I enter traffic circuit at flight level/altitude ...?Cleared to enter traffic circuit at flight level/altitude ...
QHH Are you making an emergency landing? I am making an emergency landing.
Emergency landing being made at ... (place). All aircraft below flight level/altitude ... and within a distance of ... (figures and units) leave ... (place or headings).
QHI Are you (or is ...) ...
1) waterborne?
2) on land?
I am (or ... is) ...
1) waterborne
2) on land
at ... hours.
QHQ May I make a ... approach [at ... (place)]?
Are you making a ... approach?
You may make a ... approach [at ... (place)].
I am making a ... approach.
QHZ Shall I circle the aerodrome (or go around)? Circle the aerodrome (or go around).
QIC May I establish communication with ... radio station on ... kHz (or ... MHz.) now (or at ... hours)? Establish communication with ... radio station on ... kHz. (or MHz.) now (or at ...hours).
I will establish communication with ... radio station on ... kHz (or ... MHz) now (or at ... hours).
QIF What frequency is ... using? ... is using ... kHz (or ... MHz.).
QJA Is my ...
1) tape
2) mark and space
Your ...
1) tape
2) mark and space
is reversed.
QJB Will you use ...
1) radio?
2) cable?
3) telegraph?
4) teletypewriter?
5) telephone?
6) receiver?
7) transmitter?
8) reperforator?
I will use ...
1) radio.
2) cable.
3) telegraph.
4) teletypewriter.
5) telephone.
6) receiver.
7) transmitter.
8) reperforator.
QJC Will you check your ...
1) transmitter distributor?
2) auto-head?
3) perforator?
4) reperforator?
5) printer?
6) printer motor?
7) keyboard?
8) antenna system?
I will check my ...
1) transmitter distributor.
2) auto-head.
3) perforator.
4) reperforator.
5) printer.
6) printer motor.
7) keyboard.
8) antenna system.
QJD Am I transmitting ...
1) in letters?
2) in figures?
You are transmitting ...
1) in letters
2) in figures.
QJE Is my frequency shift ...
1) too wide?
2) too narrow?
3) correct?
Your frequency shift is ...
1) too wide.
2) too narrow (by ... cycles).
3) correct.
QJF  My signal as checked by monitor ... is satisfactory ...
1) locally.
2) as radiated.
QJG Shall I revert to automatic relay? Revert to automatic relay.
QJH Shall I run ...
1) my test tape?
2) a test sentence?
Run ...
1) your test tape.
2) a test sentence.
QJI Will you transmit a continuous ...
1) mark?
2) space?
I am transmitting a continuous...
1) mark.
2) space.
QJK Are you receiving ...
1) a continuous mark?
2) a continuous space?
3) a mark bias?
4) a space bias?
I am receiving ...
1) a continuous mark.
2) a continuous space.
3) a mark bias.
4) a space bias.
QKC  The sea conditions (at ... position) ...
1) permit alighting but not take-off.
2) render alighting extremely hazardous.
QKF May I be relieved (at ... hours)?You may expect to be relieved at ... hours [by ...
1) aircraft ... (identification) (type ...)
2) vessel whose call sign is ... (call sign) {and/or whose name is ... (name)}].
QKG Will relief take place when ... (identification) establishes ...
1) visual,
2) communications,
contact with survivors?
Relief will take place when ... (identification) establishes ...
1) visual,
2) communications,
contact with survivors.
QKH Report details of the parallel sweep (track) search being (or to be) conducted?
In the parallel sweep (track) search being (or to be) conducted, what is (are) ...
1) the direction of sweeps,
2) the separation between sweeps,
3) the flight level/altitude ... employed in the search pattern?
The parallel sweep (track) search is being (or to be) conducted ...
1) with direction of sweeps ... degrees ... (true or magnetic).
2) with ... (distance figures and units) separation between sweeps.
3) at flight level/altitude ...
QKN  Aircraft plotted (believed to be you) in position ... on track ... degrees at ... hours.
QKO What other units are (or will be) taking part in the operation [... (identification of operation)]?In the operation [... (identification)], the following units are (or will be) taking part ... (name of units).
... (name) unit is taking part in operation [... (identification] (with effect from ... hours).
QKP Which pattern of search is being followed?The search pattern is ...
1) parallel sweep.
2) square search.
3) creeping line ahead.
4) track crawl.
5) contour search.
6) combined search by aircraft and ship.
7) ... (specify).
QLB Will you monitor ... station and report regarding range, quality, etc.? I have monitored ... station and report (briefly) as follows ...
QLH Will you use simultaneous keying on ... frequency and ... frequency? I will now key simultaneously on ... frequency and ... frequency.
QLV Is the ... radio facility still required? The ... radio facility is still required.
QMH  Shift to transmit and receive on ... kHz (or ... MHz.); if communication is not established within 5 minutes, revert to present frequency.
QMI Report the vertical distribution of cloud [at ... (position or zone)] as observed from your aircraft. The vertical distribution of cloud as observed from my aircraft at ... hours at ... (position or zone) is :
lowest layer observed* ... eights (... type) with base of ... (figures and units) and tops of ... (figures and units)
[*and similarly in sequence for each of the layers observed.]
height above ... (datum).
QMU What is the surface temperature at ... (place) and what is the dew point temperature at that place? The surface temperature at ... (place) at ... hours is ... degrees and the dew point temperature at that time and place is ... degrees.
QMW At ... (position or zone) what is (are) the flight level(s)/altitude(s) ... of the zero Celsius isotherm(s)? At ... (position or zone) the zero Celsius isotherm(s) is (are) at flight level(s)/altitude(s) ...
QMX What is the air temperature [at ... (position or zone)] (at ... hours) at flight level/altitude ...? At ... (position or zone) at ... hours the air temperature is ... (degrees and units) at flight level/altitude ...
Note.- Aircraft reporting QMX information will transmit the temperature figures as corrected for airspeed.
QMZ Have you any amendments to the flight forecast in respect of section of route yet to be traversed? The following amendment(s) should be made to the flight forecast ...
[If no amendments, signal QMZ NIL]
QNE What indication will my altimeter give on landing at ... (place) at ... hours, my sub-scale being set to 1013.2 millibars (29.92 inches)? On landing at ... (place) at ... hours, with your sub-scale being set to 1013.2 millibars (29.92 inches), your altimeter will indicate ... (figures and units).
QNH What should I set on the subscale of my altimeter so that the instrument would indicate its elevation if my aircraft were on the ground at your station? If you set the subscale of your altimeter to read ... millibars, the instrument would indicate its elevation if your aircraft were on the ground at my station at ... hours.
Note.- When the setting is given in hundredths of inch the abbreviation INS is used to identify the units.
QNI Between what heights above ... (datum) has turbulence been observed at ... (position or zone)? Turblence has been observed at ... (position or zone) with an intensity of ... between ... (figures and units) and ... (figures and units) heights above ... (datum).
QNO  I am not equipped to give the information (or provide the facility) requested.
QNR  I am approaching my point of no return.
QNT What is the maximum speed of the surface wind at ... (place)? The maximum speed of the surface wind at ... (place) at ... hours is ... (speed figures and units).
QNY What is the present weather and the intensity thereof at ... (place, position or zone)? The present weather and intensity thereof at ... (place, position or zone) at ... hours is ...
a) When present weather information is transmitted by a ground station, the abbreviations shall be selected from those specified in Annex 3, paragraph 4.8.2.
b) When present weather information is transmitted by an aircraft, the information shall be selected from items 10 to 12 of the AIREP form.


CW Abbreviations

These abbreviations are commonly used in CW transmissions to shorten transmission times. Not all CW operators use all of them - most will use very few. As a general rule most operators do not abbreviate unnecessarily, especially when communication with an operator that they do not know or whose experience is unknown. In contest conditions, abbreviations are common as operators try to gain as many contacts as possible over the competition period.

Abbreviation Meaning Abbreviation Meaning
CW Abbreviations
AA All After OB Old Boy
AB All Before OC Old Chap
ABT About OM Old Man
ADEE Addressee OP Operator
ADR Address OPR Operator
AGN Again OT Old Timer
AM Amplitude Modulation PBL Preamble
ANT Antenna PKG Package
BCI Broadcast Interference PSE Please
BCL Broadcast listener PT Point
BCNU Be seeing you PWR Power
BK Break in PX Press
BN Between, Been R Received, Are
BT Separation RC Ragchew
BTR Better RCD Received
Bug Semi automatic key RCVR Receiver
C Yes, Correct REF Refer to
CFM Confirm, I confirm RFI Radio Frequency Interference
CK Check RIG Station Equipment
CKT Circuit RPT Repeat, Report
CL Closing Station, Call RTTY Radioteletype
CLBK Callbook RST Readability Strength Tone
CLD Called RX Receive, receiver
CLG Calling SASE Self addressed stamped envelope
CNT Cant SED Said
CONDX Conditions SEZ Says
CQ Calling any station SGD Signed
CU See you SIG Signature, Signal
CUL See you later SINE Personal initials or nickname
CUM Come SKED Schedule
CW Continuous Wave SRI Sorry
DA day SS Sweepstakes
DE From, From this SSB Single Sideband
DIFF Difference STN Station
DLD & DLVD Delivered SUM Some
DN Down SVC Service
DR Delivered T Zero
DX Distance TFC Traffic
EL Element TMW Tomorrow
ES And TKS & TNX Thanks
FB Fine business TR & TX Transmit
FER For T/R Transmit/Receive
FM Frequency Modulation, From TRIX Tricks
GA Go ahead, Good afternoon TT That
GB Goodbye, God Bless TTS That is
GD Good TU Thank you
GE Good Evening TVI Television interference
GESS Guess TX Transmitter, Transmit
GG Going TXT text
GM Good Morning U You
GN Good Night UR You're Your
GND Ground URS Yours
GUD Good VFB Very Fine Business
GV Give VFO Variable Frequency Oscillator
HH Error sending VY Very
HI HI Laughter W Watts
HR Hear WA Word After
HV Have WD Word
HW How, Copy? WDS Words
IMI Repeat, say again WKD Worked
LNG long WKG Working
LTR Later WPM Words per minute
LVG Leaving WRD Word
MA & MILLS Milliamperes WX Weather
MSG Message TXVR Transceiver
N No, Nine XMTR Transmitter
NCS Net Control Station XTL Crystal
ND Nothing Doing XYL, YF Wife
NM No More YL Young Lady
NR Number YR Year
NW Now , Resume transmission 73 Best Regards  

Phonetic Alphabet

A number of phonetic alphabets exist. The NATO version is most common and can be considered to be the "international" phonetic alphabet.

Letter Code word Pronunciation
A Alpha AL FAH
C Charlie CHAR LEE
N November NO VEM BER
V Victor VIK TAH
W Whiskey WISS KEY
X X-ray or
Number Code word Pronunciation
0 Zero ZE RO
1 One WUN
2 Two TOO
3 Three TREE
4 Four FOW ER
5 Five FIFE
6 Six SIX
7 Seven SEV EN
8 Eight AIT
9 Nine